Determination of free amino nitrogen in beer mash with an inline NIR transflectance probe and data evaluation by machine learning algorithms

P. Wefing, F. Conradi, J. Rämisch, P. Neubauer, J. Schneider, Brewing Science : The Scientific Organ of the Weihenstephan Scientific Centre of the TU Munich, of Versuchs- and Lehranstalt Für Brauerei in Berlin (VLB), of the Scientific Station for Breweries in Munich, of the Veritas Laboratory in Zurich, of Doemens Wba-Technikum Gmbh in Graefelfing/Munich = Monatsschrift Für Brauwissenschaft 74 (2021) 107–121.

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Zeitschriftenaufsatz | Veröffentlicht | Englisch
Autorin / Autor
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Abstract / Bemerkung
Free amino nitrogen (FAN) concentrations in beer mash can be determined with machine learning algorithms from near-infrared (NIR) spectra. NIR spectroscopy is an alternative to a classical chemical analysis and allows for the application of inline process quality control. This study investigates the capabilities of different machine learning techniques such as Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression, Decision Tree Regressor (DTR), Bayesian Ridge Regression (BRR), Ridge Regression (RR), K-nearest neighbours (KNN) regression as well as Support Vector Regression (SVR) to predict the FAN content in beer mash from NIR spectra. Various pre-processing strategies such as principal component analysis (PCA) and data standardization were used to process NIR data that were used to train the machine learning algorithms. Algorithm training was conducted with NIR data obtained from 16 beer mashes with varying FAN concentrations. The trained models were then validated with 4 beer mashes that were not used for model training. Machine learning algorithms based on linear regression showed the highest prediction accuracy on unpre-processed data. BRR reached a root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 2.58 mg/L (R2 = 0.96) and a prediction accuracy (RMSEP) of 2.81 mg/L (R2 = 0.96). The FAN concentration range of the investigated samples was between approx. 180 and 220 mg/L. Machine learning based NIR spectra analysis is an alternative to classical chemical FAN level determination methods and can also be used as inline sensor system.
Erscheinungsjahr
Zeitschriftentitel
Brewing science : the scientific organ of the Weihenstephan Scientific Centre of the TU Munich, of Versuchs- and Lehranstalt für Brauerei in Berlin (VLB), of the Scientific Station for Breweries in Munich, of the Veritas laboratory in Zurich, of Doemens wba-Technikum Gmbh in Graefelfing/Munich = Monatsschrift für Brauwissenschaft
Band
74
Zeitschriftennummer
September/Oktober
Seite
107 - 121
ISSN
ELSA-ID

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Wefing P, Conradi F, Rämisch J, Neubauer P, Schneider J. Determination of free amino nitrogen in beer mash with an inline NIR transflectance probe and data evaluation by machine learning algorithms. Brewing science : the scientific organ of the Weihenstephan Scientific Centre of the TU Munich, of Versuchs- and Lehranstalt für Brauerei in Berlin (VLB), of the Scientific Station for Breweries in Munich, of the Veritas laboratory in Zurich, of Doemens wba-Technikum Gmbh in Graefelfing/Munich = Monatsschrift für Brauwissenschaft . 2021;74(September/Oktober):107-121. doi:https://doi.org/10.23763/BrSc21-10wefing
Wefing, P., Conradi, F., Rämisch, J., Neubauer, P., & Schneider, J. (2021). Determination of free amino nitrogen in beer mash with an inline NIR transflectance probe and data evaluation by machine learning algorithms. Brewing Science : The Scientific Organ of the Weihenstephan Scientific Centre of the TU Munich, of Versuchs- and Lehranstalt Für Brauerei in Berlin (VLB), of the Scientific Station for Breweries in Munich, of the Veritas Laboratory in Zurich, of Doemens Wba-Technikum Gmbh in Graefelfing/Munich = Monatsschrift Für Brauwissenschaft , 74(September/Oktober), 107–121. https://doi.org/10.23763/BrSc21-10wefing
Wefing P et al. (2021) Determination of Free Amino Nitrogen in Beer Mash with an Inline NIR Transflectance Probe and Data Evaluation by Machine Learning Algorithms. Brewing science : the scientific organ of the Weihenstephan Scientific Centre of the TU Munich, of Versuchs- and Lehranstalt für Brauerei in Berlin (VLB), of the Scientific Station for Breweries in Munich, of the Veritas laboratory in Zurich, of Doemens wba-Technikum Gmbh in Graefelfing/Munich = Monatsschrift für Brauwissenschaft 74, 107–121.
Wefing, Patrick, Florian Conradi, Johannes Rämisch, Peter Neubauer, and Jan Schneider. “Determination of Free Amino Nitrogen in Beer Mash with an Inline NIR Transflectance Probe and Data Evaluation by Machine Learning Algorithms.” Brewing Science : The Scientific Organ of the Weihenstephan Scientific Centre of the TU Munich, of Versuchs- and Lehranstalt Für Brauerei in Berlin (VLB), of the Scientific Station for Breweries in Munich, of the Veritas Laboratory in Zurich, of Doemens Wba-Technikum Gmbh in Graefelfing/Munich = Monatsschrift Für Brauwissenschaft 74, no. September/Oktober (2021): 107–21. https://doi.org/10.23763/BrSc21-10wefing.
Wefing, Patrick, Florian Conradi, Johannes Rämisch, Peter Neubauer und Jan Schneider. 2021. Determination of free amino nitrogen in beer mash with an inline NIR transflectance probe and data evaluation by machine learning algorithms. Brewing science : the scientific organ of the Weihenstephan Scientific Centre of the TU Munich, of Versuchs- and Lehranstalt für Brauerei in Berlin (VLB), of the Scientific Station for Breweries in Munich, of the Veritas laboratory in Zurich, of Doemens wba-Technikum Gmbh in Graefelfing/Munich = Monatsschrift für Brauwissenschaft 74, Nr. September/Oktober: 107–121. doi:https://doi.org/10.23763/BrSc21-10wefing, .
Wefing, Patrick ; Conradi, Florian ; Rämisch, Johannes ; Neubauer, Peter ; Schneider, Jan: Determination of free amino nitrogen in beer mash with an inline NIR transflectance probe and data evaluation by machine learning algorithms. In: Brewing science : the scientific organ of the Weihenstephan Scientific Centre of the TU Munich, of Versuchs- and Lehranstalt für Brauerei in Berlin (VLB), of the Scientific Station for Breweries in Munich, of the Veritas laboratory in Zurich, of Doemens wba-Technikum Gmbh in Graefelfing/Munich = Monatsschrift für Brauwissenschaft Bd. 74. Nürnberg, Carl (2021), Nr. September/Oktober, S. 107–121
P. Wefing, F. Conradi, J. Rämisch, P. Neubauer, J. Schneider, Determination of free amino nitrogen in beer mash with an inline NIR transflectance probe and data evaluation by machine learning algorithms, Brewing Science : The Scientific Organ of the Weihenstephan Scientific Centre of the TU Munich, of Versuchs- and Lehranstalt Für Brauerei in Berlin (VLB), of the Scientific Station for Breweries in Munich, of the Veritas Laboratory in Zurich, of Doemens Wba-Technikum Gmbh in Graefelfing/Munich = Monatsschrift Für Brauwissenschaft . 74 (2021) 107–121.
P. Wefing, F. Conradi, J. Rämisch, P. Neubauer, and J. Schneider, “Determination of free amino nitrogen in beer mash with an inline NIR transflectance probe and data evaluation by machine learning algorithms,” Brewing science : the scientific organ of the Weihenstephan Scientific Centre of the TU Munich, of Versuchs- and Lehranstalt für Brauerei in Berlin (VLB), of the Scientific Station for Breweries in Munich, of the Veritas laboratory in Zurich, of Doemens wba-Technikum Gmbh in Graefelfing/Munich = Monatsschrift für Brauwissenschaft , vol. 74, no. September/Oktober, pp. 107–121, 2021.
Wefing, Patrick, et al. “Determination of Free Amino Nitrogen in Beer Mash with an Inline NIR Transflectance Probe and Data Evaluation by Machine Learning Algorithms.” Brewing Science : The Scientific Organ of the Weihenstephan Scientific Centre of the TU Munich, of Versuchs- and Lehranstalt Für Brauerei in Berlin (VLB), of the Scientific Station for Breweries in Munich, of the Veritas Laboratory in Zurich, of Doemens Wba-Technikum Gmbh in Graefelfing/Munich = Monatsschrift Für Brauwissenschaft , vol. 74, no. September/Oktober, Carl, 2021, pp. 107–21, doi:https://doi.org/10.23763/BrSc21-10wefing.
Wefing, Patrick et. al. (2021): Determination of free amino nitrogen in beer mash with an inline NIR transflectance probe and data evaluation by machine learning algorithms, in: Brewing science : the scientific organ of the Weihenstephan Scientific Centre of the TU Munich, of Versuchs- and Lehranstalt für Brauerei in Berlin (VLB), of the Scientific Station for Breweries in Munich, of the Veritas laboratory in Zurich, of Doemens wba-Technikum Gmbh in Graefelfing/Munich = Monatsschrift für Brauwissenschaft 74 (September/Oktober), S. 107–121.
Wefing P, Conradi F, Rämisch J, Neubauer P, Schneider J. Determination of free amino nitrogen in beer mash with an inline NIR transflectance probe and data evaluation by machine learning algorithms. Brewing science : the scientific organ of the Weihenstephan Scientific Centre of the TU Munich, of Versuchs- and Lehranstalt für Brauerei in Berlin (VLB), of the Scientific Station for Breweries in Munich, of the Veritas laboratory in Zurich, of Doemens wba-Technikum Gmbh in Graefelfing/Munich = Monatsschrift für Brauwissenschaft . 2021;74(September/Oktober):107–21.

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